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Presentation of USA
Presentation of the country
- Official name: United States of America
- Nature of scheme: Federal Republic
- Head of State: Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946)
- Geographical data
- Area: 9,363,123 km². 4th in the world, 17 times the size of France – 4 time zones (6 if we include Alaska and Hawaii).
- Capital: Washington, D.C. (0.6M hours)
- Main cities: New York (8.4 million), Los Angeles (3.9 million), Chicago (2.9 million), Houston (2.3 million). h.), Philadelphia (1.6 m.), Phoenix (1.6 m.), San Diego (1.3 m.) [Source: US Census , 2010]
- Official language (s): The United States does not have an official language. English is the mother tongue of 80% of the population (13% for Spanish)
- Currency: the US dollar (USD). 1 euro = 1.18USD (December 2017)
- National Day: 4th of July (celebration of independence)
- Population: 325.7 million (December 2017 census)
- Density: 32 inhabitants / km²
- Population growth: The United States is experiencing a strong demographic growth: approximately + 1% per year (+ 13% between 1990 and 2000, and + 9% from 2000 to 2010). The US population is expected to rise in 2060 to about 470 million (+ 55% in 50 years), immigration offsetting the effects of low birth rates. The Census Bureau projections anticipate a net annual immigration of 1.25 million people by 2050 [Source: 100 Million More report from the Center for Immigration Studies]. Hispanics are now the largest minority in the United States (16.3% of the population with 50 million individuals, 20 million of whom are American).
- Life expectancy: 76 years for men, 81 years for women.
- Literacy rate: 97%
- Religion (s): Protestants (52%), Catholics (26%), Jews (1.4%), Muslims (0.6%). There is no state religion. 85% of Americans declare themselves believers. Traditional Protestantism is declining in favor of the evangelical movement. The experts on religious questions, however, emphasize the steady increase in agnosticism (about 15%).
- Human Development Index: UNDP ranking: 8th in 2014 (France: 22nd).
In 2016, US growth amounted to 1.6% for a GDP of 18,600 billion USD (World Bank). In January 2015, the unemployment rate was 5.7% against 4.1% today, which is equivalent to the creation of more than 7 million jobs in two years (Bureau of Labor Statistics). In December 2017, the FED announced a growth of 2.5% for the year 2018 and an unemployment rate of 3.9%.
In this context, the US central bank raised interest rates to between 1.25% and -1.5%. The Fed left its forecast for inflation in 2018 unchanged at 1.9%, still below the target of 2% targeted by the institution.
At the same time, at the end of December, the Congress adopted a major tax reform which, according to the FED, will have a positive impact on US growth in the short term. This includes reducing the tax burden on households and lowering the corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%.
- GDP: USD 19,500 billion (12/2017, EDF)
- GDP per capita: USD 52,667 (12/2017, EDF)
- Growth rate: 2.4% (12/2017, EDF)
- Unemployment rate: 4.1% (11/2017, EDF)
- Inflation rate: 2.5% (01/2017, EDF)
- Budget deficit: USD 587 billion – fiscal year 2016 (3.2% of GDP)
- Public debt: 104% of GDP (12/2016, EDF)
- Trade balance: – USD 502.2 billion (2016, Trade Department)
- Principal customers (2017): in descending order: Canada, Mexico, China, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom (France ranked 11th, 2.1%).
- Main suppliers (2017): in descending order: China, Canada, Mexico, Japan, Germany, South Korea (France ranked 11th, 2%).
- Share of main sectors of activity in GDP: agriculture: 2%; industry: 18%; services: 80%
Donald Trump won the presidential election on November 8th. He was sworn in and took office on 20 January.
Republicans retained the majority in Congress (52 seats (-1) in the Senate) and in the House of Representatives (237 seats (-6)).
According to the figures and analyzes available, Donald Trump gathered the traditional voters of the Republican Party while Hillary Clinton failed to mobilize the Obama Coalition (- 5 million voters compared to the 2012 election and – 9 million compared to 2008).
At each change of administration, 4000 political posts are generally renewed, 1000 of which must be confirmed by the Senate under the US Constitution. 249 of the 600 most important positions still remain to be filled in the Trump administration.
Since the election, President Trump has opened several domestic projects (Obamacare, investment plan, tax reform) that are the subject of debate with the US Congress, with a majority Republican. He achieved a key success with the adoption on 20 December 2017 of his tax reform plan by 51 votes against 48 on Tuesday evening, followed by the House of Representatives (224 against 201). The corporate tax rate is set at 21%, compared to 35% previously.